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(Haptopraxeology) - '..Alfvén’s predictions .. cannot be ignored..' - '..the faculties necessary to perceive it.'

Posted by ProjectC 
'Truth would prevail of its own accord when man possessed the faculties necessary to perceive it.'

- Ludwig von Mises (Context)


‘..the intuitive capacity of our senses for pattern recognition..’

- Hayek (Context)


'From time immemorial men in thinking, speaking, and acting had taken the uniformity and immutability of the logical structure of the human mind as an unquestionable fact. All scientific inquiry was based on this assumption.'

- Ludwig von Mises (Context)


'..traditional mathematics seems for the most part to lead to more confusion than help.'

- Wolfram


'Alfvén emphasized the influence upon him of Kristian Birkeland’s earlier research into the electrical nature of the aurora and other phenomena in the solar system. Birkeland seemed to intuitively sense the real electrical nature of space but was too far ahead of his time..'

'Alfvén emphasized the influence upon him of Kristian Birkeland’s earlier research into the electrical nature of the aurora and other phenomena in the solar system. Birkeland seemed to intuitively sense the real electrical nature of space but was too far ahead of his time. The theory of electric discharges was still in a very primitive state. He wrote, “It seems to be a natural consequence of our point of view to assume that the whole of space is filled with electrons and flying ions of all kinds. We assume each stellar system in evolution throws off electric corpuscles into space. It is not unreasonable therefore, to think that the greater part of the material masses in the universe is found not in the solar systems or nebulae, but in ‘empty’ space.”

Birkeland met overwhelming resistance, particularly from Sydney Chapman who was perhaps the most influential scientist in the field of geophysics in the period 1920-1960. But in 1973 satellites confirmed the existence of electric currents aligned with the magnetic field. These field-aligned currents are now called "Birkeland currents." In 1987, reflecting his own struggle with orthodoxy, Alfvén wrote tartly, “Since Chapman considered his theory of magnetic storms and aurora to be one of his most important achievements, he was anxious to suppress any knowledge of Birkeland's theory. Being a respected member of the proud English tradition in science, and attending - if not organizing - all important conferences in this field, it was easy for Chapman to do so. The conferences soon became ritualized. They were opened by Chapman presenting his theory of magnetic storms, followed by long lectures by his close associates who confirmed what he had said. If finally there happened to be some time left for discussion, objections were either not answered or dismissed by a reference to an article by Chapman. To mention Birkeland was like swearing in the church.” Many dissident scholars have echoed the comparison of modern institutionalized science with a religious order.

Alfvén’s plasma cosmology is an excellent theory when measured by its successful predictions. Despite this, “..the continuing resistance to Alfvén’s work is based on a widely held opinion that his predictions are not derived from a plausible physical theory (i.e., a theory that conforms to the dominant paradigm). If a theory is not acceptable, it does not gain credit by making successful predictions. This would imply that the role of prediction as a means of evaluating scientific theories has been exaggerated.” —Stephen G. Brush, Alfvén’s Programme in Solar System Physics, IEEE Transactions On Plasma Science, Vol. 20, No. 6, December 1992, p. 577.

Now two new reports stand out in relation to Alfvén’s predictions so that ultimately he cannot be ignored. The first concerns the birth of stars and the second the electric circuit of the Sun.

..

And a final word from Alfvén, who took the unprecedented step of predicting in his December 11, 1970 Nobel prize acceptance speech the eventual crash of astrophysics at the end of its long dark tunnel: “In conclusion, it seems that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of theoretical astrophysicists who have gotten their education from the listed textbooks. The multibillion dollar space data from astronomical telescopes should be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics, circuit theory, and, of course, modern plasma physics. More than 99 percent of the Universe consists of plasma, and the ratio between electromagnetic and gravitational forces is 1039."
—H. Alfvén, NASA Conference Publication 2469, 1986, p. 16.'

- Wal Thornhill, Alfvén Triumphs Again (& Again), 09 May 2011


Context

(Dutch) Haptopraxeologie: Bazaarmodel - Oostenrijkse School, Haptonomie, Plasma Kosmologie (29 mei, 2011)

'..ignoring the fruits of 150 or so years of electrical science.' - Donald E. Scott

(Nobel Prize Lecture) Plasma physics, space research and the origin of the solar system - By Hannes Alfvén, December 11, 1970

(Nobel Prize Lecture) The Pretence of Knowledge - By Friedrich August von Hayek, December 11, 1974

'...the differences between social science and natural science...' - Lawrence H. White


'The Austrian School has never succumbed to the fatal illusion that values can be measured, and has never misunderstood that statistical data has nothing to do with economic theory, but belongs to the history of economics alone .. As pioneers and creative thinkers, they recognized that one cannot arrange for scientific progress, nor breed innovation according to plan. They never attempted to propagandize their theories. Truth would prevail of its own accord when man possessed the faculties necessary to perceive it.'

'According to my grandfather, as told to me around 1910, Carl Menger had made the following remarks:

The policies being pursued by the European powers will lead to a terrible war ending with gruesome revolutions, the extinction of European culture and destruction of prosperity for people of all nations. In anticipation of these inevitable events, all that can be recommended are investments in gold hoards and the securities of the two Scandinavian countries.

Menger's savings, in fact, were invested in Swedish securities.

One who so clearly foresees disaster and the destruction of everything he deems valuable before his fortieth year cannot avoid pessimism and depression. Ancient rhetoricians were careful to consider the kind of life King Priam would have had, had he at the age of twenty already foreseen the fall of Ilium![5] Carl Menger barely had the first half of his life behind him when he recognized the inevitability of the demise of his own Troy.

..

What distinguishes the Austrian School and will lend it everlasting fame is its doctrine of economic action, in contrast to one of economic equilibrium or nonaction. The Austrian School makes use of the ideas of rest and equilibrium, without which economic thought cannot get along. But it is always aware of the purely instrumental nature of these ideas. The Austrian School aims to account for prices actually paid in the market, and not just prices that might be paid under certain never-realizable conditions. It rejects the mathematical method, not because of ignorance or an aversion to mathematical accuracy, but because it does not place importance upon the detailed description of the condition of a hypothetical and static equilibrium. The Austrian School has never succumbed to the fatal illusion that values can be measured, and has never misunderstood that statistical data has nothing to do with economic theory, but belongs to the history of economics alone.

Because Austrian economics is a discipline that concerns human action, even Schumpeter cannot be counted among the school's ranks. In his first books, Schumpeter aligns himself with Wieser and Walras but not with Menger and Böhm-Bawerk. To him, economics is a discipline of "economic quantities" and not one of human action. His Theory of Economic Development[7] is a typical product of this equilibrium theory.

It is necessary to correct the misunderstandings that can be called forth by using the expression "Austrian School." Neither Menger nor Böhm-Bawerk wanted to found a school in the sense customarily used in university circles. They never attempted to turn young students into blind disciples, nor did they, in turn, provide these same students with professorships. They knew that through books and an academic course of instruction they could promote an understanding suited to dealing with economic problems, thus rendering an important service to society. They understood, however, that they could not rear economists. As pioneers and creative thinkers, they recognized that one cannot arrange for scientific progress, nor breed innovation according to plan. They never attempted to propagandize their theories. Truth would prevail of its own accord when man possessed the faculties necessary to perceive it. Using impertinent means to cause people to pay lip service to a teaching was of no use if they lacked the ability to grasp its substance and significance.

..

Menger's position on such questions is best illustrated by a note discovered by Hayek while perusing Menger's scientific papers. It reads, "In science, there is only one sure method for the ultimate triumph of an idea: one should allow any contrary notion to run its course completely." Schmoller, Bücher, and Lujo Brentano thought differently. They denied the opportunity to teach at German universities to those who did not follow them blindly.'

- Ludwig von Mises, Mises Introduces the Austrian School


'One may say that the theory of subjectivism and marginalism that Carl Menger developed was in the air.'

'It is customary to trace the influence that the milieu exerted upon the achievements of genius. People like to ascribe the exploits of a man of genius, at least to some extent, to the operation of his environment and to the climate of opinion of his age and his country. Whatever this method may accomplish in some cases, there is no doubt that it is inapplicable with regard to those Austrians whose thoughts, ideas and doctrines matter for mankind. Bernard Bolzano, Gregor Mendel, and Sigmund Freud were not stimulated by their relatives, teachers, colleagues, or friends. Their exertions did not meet with sympathy on the part of their contemporary countrymen and the government of their country. Bolzano and Mendel carried on their main work in surroundings which, as far as their special fields are concerned, could be called an intellectual desert, and they died long before people began to divine the worth of their contributions. Freud was laughed at when he first made public his doctrines in the Vienna Medical Association.

One may say that the theory of subjectivism and marginalism that Carl Menger developed was in the air. It had been foreshadowed by several forerunners. Besides, about the same time Menger wrote and published his book, William Stanley Jevons and Léon Walras also wrote and published books which expounded the concept of marginal utility. However this may be, it is certain that none of his teachers, friends, or colleagues took any interest in the problems that excited Menger. When, some time before the outbreak of the First World War, I told him about the informal, but regular meetings in which we younger Vienna economists used to discuss problems of economic theory, he pensively observed: "When I was your age, nobody in Vienna cared about these things." Until the end of the 1870s there was no "Austrian School." There was only Carl Menger.'

- Ludwig von Mises, The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics


'..traditional mathematics seems for the most part to lead to more confusion than help.'

'The main reason that systems based on numbers have been so popular in traditional science is that so much mathematics has been developed for dealing with them. Indeed, there are certain kinds of systems based on numbers whose behavior has been analyzed almost completely using mathematical methods such as calculus.

..

But what is the origin of this complexity? And how does it relate to the complexity we have seen in systems like cellular automata?

One might think that with all the mathematics developed for studying systems based on numbers it would be easy to answer these kinds of questions. But in fact traditional mathematics seems for the most part to lead to more confusion than help.

One basic problem is that numbers are handled very differently in traditional mathematics from the way they are handled in computers and computer programs. For in a sense, traditional mathematics makes a fundamental idealization: it assumes that numbers are elementary objects whose only relevant attribute is their size. But in a computer, numbers are not elementary objects. Instead, they must be represented explicitly, typically by giving a sequence of digits.

- Stephen Wolfram, The notion of numbers, NKS, page 116


Context: (Egypt Code) Astronomically aligned within the Plasma Universe (Plasma Cosmology)

'..Queen Cleopatra IV, who is said to have been proficient in nine languages and had studied astronomy, mathematics, architecture and medicine at the Great Library of Alexandria..'

Robert Bauval, The Egypt Code, page 292