‘The methodological ideas of the Austrian School evolved in parallel with the debate on socialist economic calculation, and criticism of positivist methodology is one of the most interesting by products of this debate.’

‘..Contrary to the assumptions of the “positivist” school, we do not consider empirical evidence alone sufficient to confirm or refute a scientific theory in the field of economics. We deliberately stated that we aim to study how historical events “illustrate” or “fit in with” the theoretical conclusions reached in our analysis, not to carry out an empirical test allowing us to falsify, confirm or demonstrate the validity of our analysis. Indeed though this may not be an appropriate place to reproduce the entire critical analysis of the logical inadequacies of “positivist methodology,”80 it is clear that experience in the social realm is always “historical,” i.e., it consists of extremely complex events in which innumerable “variables” are involved. It is not possible to observe these variables directly; we can only interpret them in light of a prior theory. Furthermore both events (with their infinite complexity) and their specific structure vary from one situation to another, and hence, though the typical, underlying forces of greatest significance may be considered the same, their specific historical nature varies substantially from one particular case to another.’

Prometheus .. the rebel against the tyrant .. the champion of man

‘Prometheus is, politically, the symbol of the rebel against the tyrant who has overthrown the traditional role of Justice and Law. He is the symbol of Knowledge against Force. He is symbolically the champion of man, raising him through the gift of intelligence, against the would-be destroyer of man.’

(Story) – ‘Inter-temporal smoothing’, social disharmony

‘Mr White said QE and easy money policies by the US Federal Reserve and its peers have had the effect of bringing spending forward from the future in what is known as “inter-temporal smoothing”. It becomes a toxic addiction over time and ultimately loses traction. In the end, the future catches up with you. “By definition, this means you cannot spend the money tomorrow,” he said.’

(Story) – Time (social, physical)

‘I’ve always had serious issues with central banks promoting the perception that they would eagerly backstop market liquidity. Liquidity is a fundamental market risk – that can’t be permanently transformed, transferred or mitigated. It’s a precarious proposition to promote the belief that contemporary central banks – with unlimited capacity to create liquidity – will do “whatever it takes” to ensure highly liquid markets.’

Time preference

‘..The law of time preference is just another way of expressing the following essential principle: any actor, in the course of his action, tries to achieve the results of the action as soon as possible, and he is separated from his ends by a series of intermediate stages involving a certain time period. Hence time preference is not a psychological or physiological concept, but necessarily follows from the logical structure of action present in the mind of all human beings. In short, human action is directed toward certain ends and the actor chooses the means to accomplish them. The goal is the actor’s purpose in performing any action, and in any action, time is what separates the actor from the goal..

(Story) – Time probe

There was this little box, which appeared and than disappeared. This happened a couple of times every day.

‘Cyc, what’s up with that little box?’